Law and practice in respect to the occupation of land in Ireland: minutes of evidence: part II

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communication, an increase of something more than £100 a year has been realised from these fisherie 

solely, which are let, the one to a fishing company, and the other to a tenant on the land, leavino-

S 694b. 
profit of somewhat about £300 per annum to the holders of those fisheries—that the amount of moiie** Rev. 
Denis Mahony. 
pa^ an^ all0wed by me, to the best of my belief, much exceeds £1500, haying only been able to find 

the agent's accounts for tbe last eight years. 


Given under my hand this 19th day of September, 1844, 

Denis Mahony. 
Dromore Castle, Kenmare, 195. 
The Reverend John O'Sullivan, sworn and examined. 

Where do you reside ?-—I 
am parish priest of Kenmare, and vicar-general of the diocese of Kerry, and I live about a quarter of a mUe from the town. 
How long have you been in tins parish ?—Five 
years last April. 
GreneraUy, is this a parish hi which the tenants depend upon the tiHage or the Grazing of their land ?—Mostly 
the grazhig. 
Are there many farms held in common or hi joint tenancy ?—The 
great majority do not hold in joint tenancy : they have separate lots of land. 
All uncler Lord Lansdowne and in general under the coUege, hold in common. 
AU Mr. 
Mahony's tenants hold separate lots of land. 
Mahony, Lord Lansdowne, and the coUege, are the principal proprietors. 
Do the tenants hold in general immediately under the proprietors, or are there many middlemen ?—They 
are aU held immediately under Lord Lansdowne in my parish, with the exception of one farm. 
Mahony's tenants aU hold immediately under him; and on the college property two or three intervene between the coHege and the immediate occupier. 

Do you find much difference in the condition of those holding under the proprietors, •compared with those holding under middlemen ?—Yes, 
a very great difference. 
Which are generaHy more comfortable ?—Those 
holding under the Miniediate proprietors. 
Do they hold generaHy from year to year ?—I 
should tliink the great majority hold from year to year. 
Very few of Mr. 
Mahony's tenants have leases. 
Lord Lansdowne's tenants would get leases; but they are not very anxious to hold leases under him. 
I have often asked them why they did not get a lease, and they reply that they wTould rather not. 
They are sure of not being disturbed; whereas, if they took a lease, they would get a rise at the end of the twenty-one years, wMch is usual on other estates: but I never heard of Ms putting any rise upon an occupying tenant who holds upon a lease, nor would he disturb them, if they paid the rent. 
The premiums paid for these holdings to one another is incredible. 
I have known a man to pay £35 for a plot of land for wliich he paid only £2 5s. 
a year without any lease. 
Dickson has been tolling me of a man who gave £45 to another, who held land at a very high rent; and witiiin the last fortnight a man on the other side of the bridge paid £50 for the grass of three cows, ancl there is scarely an aero of level land in the whole. 
There are only ten years to run of the term, and he has taken it in defiance of Mr. 
Hickson assured him he shoidd have no preference; but, notwithstanding, he is going to lay out £250 upon it. 
I hold some land from Lord Lansdowne. 
He gives me tho glebe, and there was a field adjoinmg the lawn before the house I was anxious to get, but I should not think of getting it without the fuU consent of the proprietor. 
I could not drain my lawn without draming Ms field. 
I sent to him to know what he would let me have it for. 
He was under ejectment at the time, and he wanted £20 for it, though it was not worth 5s. 
I thought I should get it for £3 or £4. 
I could have got it from Mr. 
Hickson without paying any tMng for it; but, of course, I could not think of that. 
What arrangement is made between the landlord and tenant as to improvements ?— 
Lord Lansdowne allows one-fifth of the expense of the house that he or his agent considers ought to be bmlt for them. 
If a man builds an expensive house, he must be satisfied with that allowance. 
He sends his valuator, a person of intelligence; and in consequence of this, you have very good and substantial houses buUt upon the estate. 
Do any of the other landlords pursue a somewhat similar course ?—I 
do not faiow of any one. 
I think Mr. 
Mahony gives timber, which is of very Httle value—a few spars he cuts out of his wood. 
I do not think he makes any aUowance for buHchng. 
I have heard that he has in one or two histances, but not generally. 
Has there been any consoHdation of farms in tMs district?—No, 
I do not thmk there has. 
Does the subletting or subdividing of farms stiU go on ?—That 
is prevented both by See Dr. 
Longfield's Lord Lansdowne and Mr. 
The coHege does not mind it. 
The coUege faiows almost 

Evidence, nothing of the state of the tenantry. 
When I was maMng an addition to my chapel, I applied /<//-*. 
v/atfr/ to tlie iauc[e<i proprietors for some assistance, and among others, to the Board of Trinity 

College, and as a reason for giving me some assistance, I stated that their tenants were m great distress, and I could not expect the same assistance from them ; and I got a letter from Dr. 
M'DonneU, saying they had no funds available for the purpose required, and they were yery much surprised at my statement that then-tenants were worse off than Lord Lansdowne's, whereas, it appeared from the census, there were* more who had separate apartments than on any of the other estates. 
I wrote back to say, I did not mean to be offensive, but that they must have been very much misinformed as to the state of the tenantry. 
Do the tenants hold immediately under the coUege ?—No 
; there are two or tnreo mtermediate tenants. 

9___ 14. 
Does the difference in the condition of the tenantry arise from the mode of tenure.