Law and practice in respect to the occupation of land in Ireland: minutes of evidence: part II

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917 19. 
Is there any national school in the parish ?—Yes. 
1'h September, 1844. 
Has there been any attempt to ingraft agricultural teaching upon this school ?—No, 
I do not think there has; if there was, it would be a good thing, I think. 
Have you any property near KiUorglhi ?—Yes. 

*" "Denls Mallonv* [The evidence of the Rev. 
Eugene O'Sullivan, applicable to the property last alluded to, 

read to tlie witness.] 
Having heard the evidence given by the Rev. 
Eugene O'Sullivan, have you any See Bev. 
Eugene statement to make ?—Yes. 
I may say in general terms,-that I have expended over £1,000 O"SulLran's on this estate; and if compared with the estate adjoining, the tenants are much more com-

Emdetwe, fortable. 
TMs is a tract of coarse land which I bought some years ago, containing 3,000 / 

*-^-uy' or 4,000 acres. 
I found the people crowded into villages, a miserable set of paupers. 
When I got into possession I allowed them for building houses: I bought timber for them, and allowed them £5 a piece for building houses. 
I aHowed one man £100 for building a house. 
But with respect to the rent, I get very Httle more than was paid before it was improved. 
I made roads there wliich no other man did. 
The tenant has not been required where it is coarse land to pay any rent: the course was to let Mm make a certain number of perches of ditches, and to pay no rent. 
At the end of seven or eight years there was a smaU rent put upon them, which some paid and some did not, because they liad not made the improvements. 
One man was ejected because he was not aUowed what the Roman CathoHc clergyman thought proper. 
He would not help to make the road. 
I happened to hear the dispute between the agent and the tenant, and I found the man exceedingly insolent. 
He would not surrender the ground, and he wTould have what he thought proper. 
I pro¬ ceeded by ejectment, but I left it to the agent. 
Has there been any rise in the rent ?—No, 
not in the rent of the land ; but there has been an mcrease in the rent of the fishery, because there has been a new fishery discovered. 
Do you find that the opening of new roads has had much effect upon the improve¬ ment of the property, and the people residing upon it ?—Yes: 
it has enabled them to bring manure, and go to market more easily. 
One main road was made by the Board of Works, partly by the county, and partly by subscription: the bye roads are made by myself. 
I think there is a distrust existing between the landlords and tenants, prejudicial greatly to the interests of the country. 
There is a want of confidence created, wliich is a great bar to improvements. 
In wliat does the distrust originate ?—It 
is very difficut to say. 
A great deal of the misfortunes of Ireland is to be attributed to political distractions. 
What has been your practice as to leases, or what is the result of your observation, are the farmers any better off with leases ?—If 
the farmers are fitted for leases they ought to have them, but there are many who are not fitted for them; they are a pastoral people and Hve by their herds and flocks. 
They are a lazy people, and I do not think of giving a lease to them; it would not be an advantage, because the landlord could not force them to make improvements. 
It is difficult to get them to make improvements; they are naturally an indolent people, and do not Hke any mnovation. 

[ The ivitness withdrew?] 
[The following paper was subsequently furnished by the witness :—] In reply to the depositions of the Rev. 
Eugene 0'Sullivan, respecting the management and condition of ray estate at Doughs, to which he refers, I have to state in continuation of my sworn testimony before the commissioners, That this large farm has not been lately taken, as alleged, but has been purchased about fifteen years ago by me, and is my fee-simple estate—that the condition of the tenantry is by no means deplorable—that their dwellings and holdings are much beyond the generality of those in that country in point of improvements, and distinguished by tbe neatness of their appearance—that the cparse land which is called bog is of a very reclaimable nature, with the excep¬ tion of some deep bog in my own possession—that I bought a large sand-boat some years since for the use of the tenants, to draw sand and limestone—that the latter is paid for by me at the quarry, and that hitherto the boat captain has been paid by me for his sendee to the tenantry; but that I have not heretofore or as yet felt that I ought to purchase horses and cars for them—that to my belief, their health is not inferior to that of the Rev. 
Eugene O'Sullivan Mmself—that in case of any illness arising among them, I have, and still continue, to contribute £5 per annum to a dispensary for their benefit that in no instance has the rent been doubled—that in any case where there was a rise it was comparatively small, after allowances for several years—that in May, 1S43, upon the depression consequent upon Sir Robert Peel's tariff, a reduction was made, and subsequently in every case which seemed fairly to require it—that almost all the tenants now living on the lands have been resident on it since I purchased the property, with the exception of a very few who have been latterly located on tracts of reclaimable land, for whom houses have been built at my expense, their rent being „ about £1 per annum, which they, upon every succeeding year up to the present time, obtaincredit for in improvements that the farm is intersected with roads quite capable of being acted on with cars— that the greater number of the houses and aU the roads were made at my expense—that to the best of my belief the tenants are perfectly contented—that I do not recollect an instance except one, during fifteen years, in which there was occasion to have recourse to a sale for non-payment of rent—that finally, upon my commg into possession of this estate, Daniel O'Connell, esq., 
was my tenant for the entire farm and fishery attached thereto, at a rent of £500 a year Irish, for ever, without a clause of surrender—that upon an amicable arrangement I got the possession—that the present rent received is but £472 2s. 
for the land; but in consequence of two fisheries hating been lately discovered on the coast of tMs property, and the value of salmon becoming more lucrative, by reason of steam