Law and practice in respect to the occupation of land in Ireland: minutes of evidence: part II

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Does the district, in jour opinion, afford opportunities for extensive and remunerative 

1 improvements ?—It 
certainly does. 
Of what nature ?—Draining, 
and bringing into cidtivation the waste lands, and adont-Mr. 
jng a better system of culture. 
* " 

6-Is agriculture, in your opinion, improving ?—Yes, 
it is, partially. 
What are the manures principally used ?—Sea-weed 
by the coast, and along the river sea sand. 
Are there farmmg societies or agricultural superintendents in your district ? 
There is one farming society here, and Sir William Beecher has got an agricultural superintendent for his estate only. 
What has been the effect of the farming society ?—It 
has been attended with good effect; but not at all to the extent desirable. 
In what manner is the rent generally fixed in the district—by private contract proposal, or valuation ?—Latterly 
by valuation. 
For the last four or five years, some of the landed proprietors have got some tenant or bailiff, or both conjointly, to value. 
Has that system given more satisfaction to the people?—I 
should say it was an improvement; but at the same time it is not satisfactory. 
The grounds are over-let. 

What is the usual rent of average good land ?—The 
rent differs in the interior and by the sea; the land by the sea is Mgher, owing to the local advantages of manure and fishing. 
In the interior it is not within 6s. 
or 7s. 
what it is on the coast. 
I should say the best quality of land by the sea was 30s. 
the statute acre. 
What could that land be expected to produce ?—It 
would produce potatoes and wheat. 
What quantity of potatoes would it produce ?—Owing 
to the poverty of the people, and their inability to manure it, I should say about two or three barrels of potatoes. 
Our barrel is two tons. 
Perhaps two barrels of two tons. 
How much wheat does that land generally grow ?—I 
should say about four bags-twenty stone in the bag. 
What proportion does the usual letting value bear to the poor law valuation?—I 
should say that the poor law valuation is between one-third and one-fourth less than the rent, where there are not bargains or old takes; the letting the ground for the last half-year would make the rent one-fourth over the poor law valuation. 
Is there any system of payment of rent by bill ?—Yes 
; since the Provincial Bank has been established, that has become almost the sole method of paying rent—by bills at the bank. 
Paying otherwise would be the exception to the rule. 
Does the tenant raise it on Ms own security, or pay the bill to the landlord or the agent ?—Oftener 
by paying it to the landlord or the agent than on his own account. 
They would not get thc bills cashed at the bank unless they got the landlord or agent to endorse them, 19. 
What is the additional charge for discount?—For 
small amounts the general rate of interest and the stamp would make it from ten to twelve per cent. 
I was workmg a loan fund here in conjunction with others, ancl we got so dissatisfied with it, we gave it up, though we lost notMng. 
What was the cause of the dissatisfaction ?—The 
interest at 6d. 
in the pound came to twelve and a half per cent., 
and we found that the fines paid by the people came to twelve and a half per cent, more, making twenty-five per cent.; 
and we began to think the sooner it was given up the better. 
Independently of which, it brought a large number of farmers— for whom it was never properly intended—from their work; they lost a great deal of thne, and I tliink it was the greatest curse to them, though intended for a benefit. 
Are there many local usurers in the district ?—I 
am told there are some petty ones in the district, but I know nothing of them. 
What mode is usually adopted to recover rent from defaulting tenants ?—Distress 
is the usual mode; but I am sorry to be obliged to say that when the cattle were thereto be driven, an expensive process of law has been adopted to take the cattle, which could in the first instance be taken by distress. 
What was the process adopted ?—Processing 
at the manor court, or at the quarter sessions. 
What is the expense of proceeding at the manor court, or at the quarter sessions?—I 
do not know the expense of the manor court, but it is 7s. 
at the quarter sessions. 

What is the expense of the distress to the tenant?—It 
The expense of a distress is much more than I knew of till lately. 
The drivers or baUiffs are a great tax upon the farmers, and are in the habit of taking bribes from them. 
They also compel the farmers to sell their corn to friendly corn-buyers, from whom they receive a considerable per centage, which is deducted from the price of "the corn, or allowed in extra weight. 
If there could be corn markets established, it would be a great benefit to the poor people. 
There are no markets, though the quantity of corn sold is very considerable. 

Are the receipts of rent usually given on account, or up to a particular g^6'. 
Usually on account. 
I believe the mode varies. 


Heretofore it was more the habit to gi them on account. 
I think no receipt at all is given on many estates in this country, payment is entered in a book. 
Do the tenants hold generally by lease, or from year to year ?—From 
year-to year. 
Is there an anxiety on their part for leases ?—Not 
so much as there was a snor\^ ago. 
I do not beli eve there is. 
If they got the ground at the value, they would very m like to have a lease; and I have heard many of them say that they would improve ground if they had.