Law and practice in respect to the occupation of land in Ireland: minutes of evidence: part II

Back to Search Bibliographic Data Print
961 29. 
What effect has that mode of tenure upon the condition of the tenants, and the 10th Sept., 
1844, improvement of their farms ?—It 
makes them more improvident and careless, and less anxious to improve their farms. 

By whom aro permanent improvements in lands or buildings effected—by the tenant 

Mr'D-MtCartby-or landlord ?—The 
tenant is generally allowed a portion by the landlord, and he is obliged to make certain improvements, which are considerably more than the value he receives. 
Has there been any consolidation of farms in this district ?—There 
have been some farms consolidated where they have been added to demesnes, but not to the same extent as in other places. 
Does the subletting or subdividing of farms still continue ?—Indeed 
it does, but not to the same extent as it did. 
The landlords are making every effort to prevent it, and I believe successfully. 
With respect to the condition of the farming population, aro the largo farmers aettino-richer ?—No 
; I clo not think they are. 

a & 34. 
Are the small tenantry improving ?—They 
are considerably detcrioratino*. 
Is there a class of labourers as a separate class ?—Ye**. 
What is their condition ?—Wretched. 
Tho farmers do most of the work themselves. 
Can employment be obtained by the labourers ?—No; 
they would be very glad to work at 8d. 
a day, and I know they have worked at 6d. 
Have there been any agrarian outrages in the district ?—No 
; it is a very quiet country. 
How is the amount of the county cess to be levied off any townland made public ? 
It is stuck up in the parish vestry. 
I do not know that there is any notification given of it till the collector hands in a bill of it—and there is not a greater grievance than that of the county cess ; it has been increasing every year. 
The system of the grand jury cess ancl the road jobbing, and the partial way of doing business, are very much to be found fault with. 
Magistrates go from one barony to another, to carry a road that is for the benefit of the owner in fee ; and I should think that they ought to be the persons to pay for it. 
Do you consider that it is more for the benefit of the holder in fee than the occupier?—Yes, 
I do. 
Does not the occupier gain largely by it, as long as he holds at the same rent?— 
Yes; but there are no leases scarcely in this country ; it is an exception to tho rule. 
As long as he is allowed to hold at tho same rent, it is an advantage to Mm, but as soon as the land becomes more valuable tho rent has been increased ; It is not so now, because the prices are too low; they could not do it, but they aro able to got the old rent by means of the new-roads. 
The landlords ought to pay a portion of the county cess, at least. 
Have you any other suggestion you wish to lay before the commissioners ?—It 
would be a great accommodation to the tenant if one collector was to collect all the rates and taxes, and if they were levied on one valuation ; and where very expensive farm roads were made over a property, that tho landlord ought to pay for them. 
Do the proprietors over whose property those roads aro made, contribute any portion of them ?—Yes, 
they do, but not a sufficient portion. 

[ The witness withdrew.] 
Henry Newman, esq., 
sworn and examined. 
Whore do you Hve ?—Bettsborough, 
near this town. 


Henry Newman, esq. 
What is your occupation ?—I 
hold some land. 
I am a land agent rather extensively, and I farm some land. 
What quantity of land do you farm?—I 
should think about 120 acres. 
I have lately been associated with three others in tho valuation of this union for poor law purposes. 
It con¬ tains about 236,000 acres; the population is about 100,000 ; gross value, £106,722 14s. 
nett value, £96,776 19s. 
and owing to improvements I think the district would pay £100,000 per annum. 
This district affords ample opportunity for extensive and remu¬ nerative improvement. 
Is the state of agriculture improving in the district ?—Yes; 
it is exceedingly backward, but improving slowly. 
Drainage is quite imperfect, as it is not understood. 
We have^ no system—no rotation. 
There is"a considerable quantity of sea manure in use. 
There is a large extent covered with surface, in many cases injuriously taken elsewhere, and burnt for manure, as also bog mould. 
There is some extent of surface burnt also. 


is no school of agriculture; and nothing I would more strenuously recommend, as notMng is more wanted. 
I obtained land from a proprietor, A. 
Newman, esq., 
live acres of land, and communicated with the board, who declined to establish one. 
The state of agriculture would require one in each parish. 
I have always found that elementary, or only book, instruction, without the inculcation of habits of industry, &c, produces discontent, from whence arises insubordination, and feelings which must exist and spread as long as the present system continues. 
If agricultural schools were parochially established, the valuo of the improved amdes of agriculture would be fully impressed upon the minds of the youth of the country generally. 
As a practical person, I have found that I cannot get old people very much into the improved mode, which would be impressed upon the minds of the youth of the country generally, and which would be practically carried out on the farms. 
Make the lands worth the rents assumed, but not paid at present, and I am satisfied that habits of order, content, and industry, would be the result of the establishment of those schools. 
A union farming society exists, of which I am treasurer, which has had a slow but beneficial effect. 

Part H. 
6 G-