Letter from an Irish Emigrant to his friends in the U.S.A.

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Document ID 9710305
Date 01-01-1799
Document Type Diaries and Journals
Archive Public Record Office, Northern Ireland
Citation Letter from an Irish Emigrant to his friends in the U.S.A.; PRONI D 1759/3; CMSIED 9710305
  The original of this pamphlet is in the Library of the
New York Historical Society.  It is the only copy known.
  I had the pamphlet microfilmed and three typewritten
copies - of which this is one - was made.
                               Aiken McClelland.
                                10/7/56 [10 July 1956?]
  To my good friend Dr. David Stewart on his 88th

             A LETTER
           TO HIS FRIENDS
              IN THE
           UNITED STATES
              OF THE
              OF THE
           AND OF SEVERAL

Printed and sold at the Book-Sellers.

                        New York: September 1798.
  We sailed from Belfast, on board the Harmony of New
Bedford, Captain Asa Swift, and landed to the amount of
sixty-five in number, in this City a few days ago.
Some of the passengers have come hither on mercantile
affairs, but much the greater number of us have been
literally transported from his Britannic Majesty's
Dominions under the sentence of a Court Martial, or
obliged to fly to avoid instant death by military
execution, which is now carrying on in all parts of that
unfortunate Ireland, in order to check the revolution
which British tyranny has produced and long insulted
humanity has loudly called for.
  Many hundreds of persons of rank and property are
in a similar situation, and all bent on coming to this
Continent, forming the most respectable emigration which
has taken place in your United States since the settlement
of the New England colonies, during the persecutions of
Queen Mary, and King Charles I and II of England.

  As you, and perhaps other friends in America, may be
curious to know the cause of the present convulsions in
Ireland, I shall attempt to give a short view of them:-
  Our Commons House of Parliament (like your House of
Representatives in Congress) which has the whole power
of granting financial supplies, and which consists of
three hundred members, has two hundred and thirty of
its members chosen by Towns, called Boroughs, most inferior
to your New-London, Derby, or Salem; only twelve persons,
called Burgesses of these Towns are allowed a vote, and
these frequently living at a distance of fifty miles, the
whole at the disposal of some gentlemen, who sell the
seats (lately when the market was good) for œ2,700
sterling, as you do a hogshead of flax, tobacco, or
lately the negroes; and these seats are mostly bestowed
upon, or bought by the servants or pensioners of the Crown:
add to this the influence of the gentlemen of the great
landed estates, in choosing the seventy members to
represent the counties and great towns, the people can
scarcely be said to have any voice in the Legislature.
This want of parliamentary representation in the people of
Ireland began to manifest itself particularly even so
early as the restoration of King Charles II - when the
Presbyterians after all their services in recalling that
Prince to the Throne, were deprived of their Churches
(which they enjoyed upon an equal footing with the
Episcopalians) and obliged along with the Roman Catholics,
constituting twenty-nine out of thirty of the inhabitants
of the Kingdom, to give the tenth of their yearly income
to maintain the Episcopal clergy, besides annual taxes
to keep the Churches in repair, to pay the clerk, sexton,
for washing the vestments, and even for buying the sacramental
  In the fourth year of Queen Anne's reign, an act passed
disqualifying all persons who did not receive their sacrament
in the Episcopal Church from holding any office in the State.
In the year 1737, the Parliament enacted a law, preventing
Roman Catholics from voting, though composing two-thirds
of the whole people of the nation, because in a certain
southern country they had the presumption of electing one
Protestant member, in preference to another to be their
representative, as thinking him more deserving, though
he had a smaller estate, and less influence; but what
principally aroused the indignation of the Irish people,
was the concurrence of their parliament with that of
Great Britain, in levying an unnatural war upon you,
their brethren of these United States, for the purpose of
enslaving you, though it was trumped up by the advocate
of the war that they were only designed to suppress an
Irish Presbyterian hearts-of-steel rebellion translated
from Ireland to your continent; after which, the people
of that sect in Ireland were to be crushed, and their
meeting-houses shut as being the abettors !
  This was followed by raising a crusade of arbitrary
despots to oppose France in recovering her liberties,
whereby that nation has been roused, to a state of
madness and desperation !  Ten millions sterling has
been added to the National Debt of Ireland, and four
hundred millions and upwards to that of Great Britain;
taxes more than doubled; public credit so low that a œ100
bill will not pass for œ50, and scarcely to be received
at all, except at the point of a bayonet, though bearing
an interest of nearly 10%.
  Ireland during your American War being left with not
more than 3,000 soldiers for her defence, whilst the
combined fleets of France and Spain rode triumphant in
her channel; the people formed volunteer companies to
the amount of 80,000 men, clothed and armed at their
own expense.  Under their protection the nation was
freed from the terror of foreign enemies, and the laws
made to be respected at home (which they never were
before) by all ranks.
  Delegates from each of the Volunteer corps met at
Dungannon, in the province of Ulster, in the year 1782,
and made a general declaration of grievances.  The
Parliament, though they had almost unanimously made a
declaration to the contrary, were thereby roused to
repeal the law preventing Presbyterians from holding
offices in the State, (the King at the first presentation
refused his assent; and the whole bench of Bishops
opposed it to the last) some penal laws against Roman
Catholics, and part to assert the independence of Ireland
in opposition to the British Parliament, who claimed an
undoubted right to restrain Irish trade, in the same
manner as it did once yours, in opposition to your
  Many of the volunteer leaders having joined the
standard, in order to be popular for the day, deserted
the cause (having now obtained a place or pension); a
law was passed to prevent meeting in military array and
requiring a public registry of arms, for the purpose of
being called for when necessary; another law was enacted
forbidding all national or provincial conventions, or
even county meetings, (unless called for by the Sheriff,
who is an officer solely under the control of the
Government) and suppressing all private political
societies); and in proportion as the volunteer interest
was thus broken down, the Parliament returned to their
ancient measures!
  A proposal for an equitable intercourse of trade between
Great Britain and Ireland (which was shameful partial)
was brought forward by an Irish minister, in return for
which, before the benefit was obtained, Mr. Grattan,
the patriot of the day, proposed and carried taxes estimated
to amount to œ120,000 sterling, but which produced three
times that sum.  The money bill passed, but the propositions
of trade were so much altered by the British Parliament,
as to become totally inadmissible by the Irish nation.
  The next generous act of the Irish Parliament was,
the bestowing to Great Britain a considerable part of the
trade lately reclaimed, by voting for twenty-one years
the exclusive right to all trade beyond the Cape of Good
Hope, in the English East-India Company.
  For National defence, in addition to the 20,000 stated
regular troops, an Act of Parliament passed to raise a
regiment of militia, in each of the thirty-two counties
of Ireland.  Persons from 18 to 45, subjects to be drawn
by lot to serve as privates; their pay, the same as common
soldiers; officers to be appointed by the King, without any
lot - like pay, with those in the regulars to render the
business palatable; the militia were so far exempted from
military law as not to be liable to be affected in life
or limb: but a clause was huddled in whilst in their own
country, of which the government taking advantage, the
militia as soon as embodied were ordered out of their
respective counties, and several of the men actually shot
under military law, upon charge of associating with
societies engaged in recovering the national rights.
   Upon the governments of Great Britain and Ireland
joining the combined powers in the present war against
France, delegates from each country in the province of
Ulster met at Dungannon, made a declaration of grievances,
and solemnly protested against the injustice and impolicy
of the war.  This provincial meeting was to have been
followed by a national convention, for the purpose of
address to the king, and remonstrating with Parliament
for a reform of the abuses.  The Parliament of Ireland
having by the convention bill put down all public
meetings, they were reduced to the dire necessity of
resorting to the private ones!  And here the great
object to be obtained, and the want of which had
rendered every effort of the people of Ireland in
recovering their liberties abortive, was union.  The
ruling powers had long artfully fomented religious
prejudices between the two great bodies of which the people
were principally composed, vulgarly called the Presbyterians
of the North and the Roman Catholics of the South, whom
they merely made instruments for mutually enslaving each
  For this purpose societies were formed under the
appellation of United Irishmen.  Persons of character of
every religious persuasion were admissible, upon taking
oath that they would cultivate a brotherhood of affection
with Irishmen of every religious profession, and use their
best endeavours to procure a fair and equal representation
of all the people of Ireland.  Every member paid a penny
per week to a public fund.  These societies corresponded,
by sending delegates to baronial or divisions of counties;
those to counties, counties to provincial, and these to
national meetings, who formed the supreme executive
  The number of United Irishmen ascertained by a
Parliamentary investigation amounted to at least 600,000;
besides a body in England and Scotland, almost as numerous.
The town of Belfast had the honour of originating this
  The most happy effects speedily followed and the execution
of this judicious institution.  Instead of wild, frantic,
enthusiastic rage venting itself in opprobrious epithets,
damning of Papist and Presbyterian souls, accompanied
with bloody quarrels at fairs, markets, and other public
meetings, universal peace and goodwill everywhere reigned;
and mutual salutations, and the most kind offices took place
upon every opportunity; and the mutual suffering of the
parties, their blood-shed in common, and blended together
in pursuit of their common rights, has forever cemented
the people as a nation of brothers!
  The ruling powers, alarmed at these proceedings,
immediately adopted proper measures to counteract them!
Spies were hired to join the United Societies.  Those who
figured most conspicuously in this department, were Lawler,
Dutton, Newel, and Captain Armstrong of the King's County
Militia, since made a colonel in the Regulars, with a
regiment.  The breach of the society's oath by law was
declared notorious.  All popular persons suspected of
being members of the United Societies, or of allowing such
to meet in their houses, were arrested and detained in
prison (without being permitted to be visited by any one
of their family) during pleasure; and their houses and
property frequently destroyed.
  Large sums of money were published for informers, but the
principal engine framed, as a counterpoise to the union,
was the constituting of a society, under the appellation
of Orange-men.   This was said to be the work of the
Irish Under-Secretary of State, Cook.  The original test
of this society was, "I swear to maintain the present
constitution in Church and State, as by law established,
and to root out Roman Catholics," and the rallying word,
"Wash your hand's in Papists' blood."  James Verner, Esq.
was appointed grand master of the order; and warrants
were issued for the erection of new bodies, as in Freemason
Lodges.  These bodies paraded on stated days, particularly
the 12th July, with Orange Flags, and other emblems, and
were reviewed (said by public authority, to the amount of
10,000) at Lurgan, by general Lake, commander-in-chief
of the Northern District.
  These societies are made up of the gentry more immediately
dependant on, or connected with the present rulers; such
dependants as these gentry could force into their train;
starving tradesmen, turned out of employment by the war,
together with such as enthusiasm, want of principle, love
of money or plunder, could allure.  Such likewise, in
the army or militia, as wished to recommend themselves
to those in power, or preferred the countenance of superior
officers to the peace of their own consciences, were
obliged also to enrol themselves, and show their zeal in
promoting the cause.
   Such of the Orangemen, as were not in the military line
before, have been embodied, armed, clothed, officered by
their respective patrons, and put under government pay,
under the appellation of Yeomen.  The whole body of
military Yeomen are computed to amount to 40.000 men,
and in justice it must be observed that not more than two
thirds of them are Orangemen, many of them are men of
honour, attached to the liberty of their country, wounded
to the heart by its calamities, and ready to establish its
freedom with their blood if the opportunity served.  A
detachment of the Orange squadron, in this respectable
body, about two years ago, pursuant to their system, racked,
as it is termed, or plundered, pulled down and burnt, about
800 Roman Catholic houses, including some chapels, in the
county of Armagh and the adjacent parts of the counties
of Down and Tyrone, (see Lord Gosford's, Governor of the
County of Armagh, address to the inhabitants of that
county.), killing some of the principal heads of families,
and drawing out the rest partly in the depth of winter.
The watchword "To Hell! Connaught won't receive you!"
and the other Orange corps have been strictly comfortable
to the practice in other parts.
  Military (regulars and militia) have racked the houses
of such persons throughout every part of the Kingdom (the
great towns and cities not excepted) deemed most popular,
and active in the cause of reform, and not content with
dragging the owners to prison, but frequently strangling,
picketing or lashing them (until the flesh was torn from
their bones) for the purpose of extorting confessions!
  In this unhappy state of affairs, Earl Fitzwilliam, then
a very popular nobleman in Ireland, with an estate of
œ30,000 sterling per annum in that Kingdom, was sent over
as Lord Lieutenant, by the British Government, with the most
ample promises of redress of grievances, particularly the
restoration of Roman Catholics to the rights of citizens,
and under this prospect the Irish government, upon the
motion of Mr. Grattan, (the then ostensible minister)
voted for the year an additional supply of one million,
seven hundred pounds sterling.  Upon the money bill being
passed, Earl Fitzwilliam was recalled, and Earl Camden
was sent over, with a positive declaration that not
any redress of grievances was to be looked for, His
Majesty having given him (Earl Camden) his positive command,
to inform his faithful Parliament of Ireland, that he (His
Majesty) was determined to preserve inviolate their happy
constitution in church and state, and suppress any
supposed discontents."  Ten thousand additional troops
were immediately sent into the Kingdom, and military
guards who dragooned the people stationed in every village,
(their very ensigns made magistrates.)
  A few foolish boys, said to have taken some guns, in a
certain district, from persons suspected of being unfriendly
to the cause of freedom, gave a pretext to the government
to send out the military and disarm a considerable part of
the Kingdom, particularly the great protestant county of
Down.   Upon this a number of the most peaceable,
independent men of the first property, particularly
in Co. Down and King's County, upon the sheriff's refusing
to call a meeting for the purposes of addressing the
King upon the state of public affairs, determined to assemble
under a call of a number of the Justices of the Peace,
ever before deemed legal.  The King's County meeting was
dispersed by military force, and a large escort of soldiers
with cannon, assisted by the threats of the Sheriff,
prevented the assemblage of the County of Down, and totally
discouraged the attempts in other counties.   The free-
holders however, from house to house, signed an address to
the King, praying a change of measures, and dismissal of
This was presented by the Earl of Moira and
Mr. Fox, but totally disregarded.
   The people being thus shut out from every peaceable
mode of redress, began secretly to arm in their own defence,
particularly with pikes, guns not being obtainable; still
hoping that the ruling powers would be brought to an amicable
settlement.   The government, on the contrary, proceeded to
arrest and imprison all leading suspected men, and
stationed soldiers in free quarters in certain districts,
until the people should bring in their arms.
  The people thus goaded to insurrection, actually on the
22nd of May, in and near the city of Dublin, prepared for
resistance, and agreeable to a concerted plan, were
determined the night of that day to have seized the
Castle of Dublin and the leading members of government.
Through the treachery of a Captain Armstrong of the King's
County Militia, (since made a colonel in the regulars) the
Irish Arnold, who was one of the United Irishmen's sworn
assistants, or supreme executive committee, the plan was
discovered about three hours before the proposed
execution, the suspected leaders made prisoners, and
military patrols stationed about the different avenues
leading to the city.
  These things being unknown to the country people,
they assembled at the appointed hour, burned the north
and south mail coaches, then coming out of the city -
the non-arrival of the mail being the sign to the rest
of the Kingdom, to make ready, as the attack upon Dublin
had commenced.  This party being unexpectedly attacked
by the military patrols stationed without the city, and no
exertion being made from within, suffered considerable
  The country people however, being committed, stood
to their arms; and they and the soldiery fought several
battles with various success, particularly at Wicklow,
Dunlavin, Arklow, Bray, Blessintown, White-heaps, The Cap,
Red Lion, Wexford, Naas, Kilcullen Bridge, Rathfarnham,
Crumlin-Commons, Carlow, Kilkenny, Louth, Fermanagh,
Donegal, Derry, and other places.  We may in some
degree judge the spirit in which these battles were fought,
and the slaughter which ensued, from one fought in Wicklow,
where it is said not less than 1,300 of the military
were killed, and the Welsh dragoons, or ancient Biltons,
nearly cut to pieces.  Several officers and men of note
in the royal party have fallen in this unhappy contest,
particularly Lord Mountjoy, Lord O'Neill, and many of great
respectability upon the side of the people.
  A messenger not arriving in Belfast, after the
burning of the mail coach, with the expected account
that Dublin was in the hands of the people - upon which
the United men of Ulster were to rise; the people of
Belfast (her capital) deferred rallying the inhabitants
of the neighbouring parts of Antrim and Down, who were
ready to assist her in securing her garrison, which,
with the whole province might have been carried in one
day.  The garrison, taking advantage of this neglect,
obliged the people of that town to deliver up the cannon
and other arms they had concealed.
  A number of the people about the town of Antrim, and
neighbouring parishes, along with some spirited men from
the town of Belfast, being grieved that their brethren
of the South should be sacrificed for the country's rights
unassisted, assembled at arms at the town of Antrim, upon
the 7th of June, for the purpose of seizing as hostages,
for the country's safety, certain magistrates, who were
to meet there at a session, of which the military had notice.
A large number of soldiers and yeomanry with cannon, from
the garrison of Belfast, Lisburn, and other adjacent parts
were collected,  and a battle ensued.  The people were
victorious upon the onset, but upon a reinforcement of
soldiery arriving, were repulsed with the loss of 84 killed.
Of the military, 48 of the 22nd Light Dragoons, 17 foot,
and 60 of the Antrim, Shane's Castle and other yeomanries.
  From Saintfield, and neighbouring parishes, assembled
in the town of Saintfield, to the number of about seven
hundred; upon an express to Newtownards, Col. Stapleton,
of the Yorkshire fencibles, with a detachment consisting
of his regiment, and the Newtownards yeoman cavalry, in
all about six hundred, with two pieces of cannon, arrived
unexpectedly in about four hours; they were met near the
town of Saintfield, by about three hundred of the country
people armed with pikes, and muskets, who steadily received
two fires before they made a charge.
  The military fled leaving thirty-four soldiers, including
two ensigns dead, and three wounded.  The Newtownards yeoman
cavalry had eight killed including the Rev. Mr. Mortimer,
Vicar of Comber, and the Rector of Portaferry, and his
nephew, Mr. Merry, surveyor of Newtownards.  The killed and
wounded in all amounted to upwards of an hundred, and had
panic not seized a leader, and more than one hundred of his
party, who fled from the military cannon, which they had
taken possession of - and some others, who were appointed
to fall in at the enemy's rear, and fled like dastards,
the whole soldiery must have been made prisoners or cut
to pieces. The people, however, retained possession of the
arms-chest, with a quantity of arms, with a quantity of
swords, muskets, and carabines, a chest of family plate, etc.
  A transaction during the battle took place worthy of
notice, and shows what the determined spirit of freemen
can effect; eight men with pikes were placed upon an
eminence before a very thick thorn hedge, with a view of
falling on the enemy's rear, when they passed: but their
situation being discovered by means of a scout, they were
attacked by about fifty soldiers.  Having no means of escape
from the hedge in their rear, they rushed forwards on their
adversaries, killed part of them, and caused the panic-struck
scattered remains, to fly with precipitation! - The country
people lost eighteen killed, among whom bravely fell Mr.
John Lowry, of Ardmillen, commanding the Killinchy company,
and two or three wounded, not mortally.  Richard Frazer,
of Ravarra, Lieutenant-Colonel of the Saintfield regiment,
commanding the whole, and greatly signalized himself upon the
  Upon the 10th of June, a number of people from the different
neighbouring parts assembled at Saintfield to the amount of
about three thousand; and Mr. Henry Monro, Merchant of
Lisburn, also arrived, and took upon himself the command as
general, a post, notwithstanding his worth, and goodness of
heart, for which he was not qualified.  General Munro, by
advice, took a very strong advantageous position in Nicholas
Price's castle, and demesne, near Saintfield, from which no
force could be spared by government, could have dislodged
them; plenty of forage, and every other necessity easily
obtained, and there he was advised to wait an attack.
General Munro, through the suggestion of some inconsiderate
persons was persuaded to decamp to Ballynahinch, with a
view of obtaining reinforcements, and falling round upon
and attacking the garrison of Downpatrick.
  General Munro, was cautioned upon leaving Saintfield by
no means to march forth to meet regular soldiers in open
country, as his men were undisciplined, and chiefly armed
with pikes - but to encamp in, and retain the secure
portion of Lord Rawdon's castle, and extensive woods near
Ballynahinch, and there wait for the enemy, in a place where
neither cannon nor horse could easily approach them; as at
all events he would be subjected to be flanked every yard
through very intricate passes.
  About three hours after General Munro marched from Mr.
Price's demesne, General Nugent, commander-in-chief of the
Northern District arrived at the verge thereof next
Oughley Hill, from Belfast, having with him a detachment
consisting of the Fifeshire and Yorkshire fencibles,
Monaghan militia, a mortar, with bomb shells, and eleven
other pieces of artillery.
  The late encounters at Antrim and Saintfield, having
now convinced General Nugent that the people would not
longer fly upon the bare appearance of a red coat, and not
knowing the people had marched to Ballynahinch, the general
dared not proceed directly through the demesne; but drew up
men upon the borders, advancing with slow pace, and halting
every perch, scouring the woods with grape-shot, and firing
large shot at the Mansion House, one of which passed
through the roof; nor were they with the utmost difficulty
scarcely to be undeceived of this error by the signals and
hallooings of Mr. Price's servants.  General Nugent and his
corps, happy at their escape from seeming inevitable
destruction,and exulting at the folly of the people who had
left such an advantageous position, advanced to Mr. Price's
castle, in which they found a man lying intoxicated with
liquor, whom they dragged out to the court and shot!
  Marching about a mile to the town of Saintfield, they
burned the houses of John Arthur, and three cottages
belonging to poor tradesmen, the house of Dr. McCarton,
the house and stores of David Shaw, grocer, spirit dealer,
leather merchant, woollen draper, and cotton manufacturer,
a prisoner before the insurrection.  The cottage of William
Murphy, (in the commons) a most deformed helpless cripple,
living upon alms, and confined to bed for twenty-four years;
and wrecked and plundered the houses of William Shaw, James
Thompson, Alexander Bradley, tavern keepers; the house of Adam
Cross, wheelwright and town constable, the house of William
Spratt, watch-maker, and burned the office houses of William
Walker, Surgeon and apothecary.
  The military taking the route to Ballynahinch, they
plundered and burned, with scarce an exception the houses
in an extent of a very thickly inhabited country of nearly
four miles long by one mile broad, shooting some of the
people, amongst whom were Hugh McMullen of Drumnaconnell,
William George of Tonaghmore, Thomas Smyth, junior, of
Carridorn, most inoffensive men, and unarmed, the two
former upwards of sixty years of age.  The manner in which
the soldiery accosted the people was "Damn you, have you any
money?"  Upon the arrival of the military near Ballynahinch,
they were joined by the garrison of Downpatrick, the
Castlewellan yeomanry, 22nd Light dragoons from Lisburn,
troops from Blaris camp, etc., in all nearly 4,000 troops,
the country people forming about an equal number.
  General Munro, contrary to advice, posted a detachment
of his men in the open country, upon the Saintfield Road,
to oppose the soldiers in approaching the town of
Ballynahinch.  The military advanced towards that part
which lay opposite to Lord Rawdon's castle and demesne,
the town lying between this detachment had orders to
rush forward with their pikes, and seize the cannon, which,
if all the people had been animated with the same spirit
as General Munro, might perhaps have been affected with great
slaughter. The military coming forward with the cannon
in front (it being then about six in the evening) commenced
a heavy fire of bomb-shells and grape-shot, which was
returned with good effect, from a few musketry planted behind
hedges and other small covers, killing about eighty of the
militia, the loss said to have fallen principally upon
the Downpatrick division, commanded by Major Stewart, and the
  Many of the people being total strangers to the awful
grumblings of blazing and bursting shells and showers
of desolating grape-shot, and being struck with despair at
the burning of their houses, precipitately deserted
their leaders and returned no more to the charge.
  However, a number of people retained their station
upon a hill, called Windmill Hill, just above the town.
The military kept at a respectable distance, and continued
their cannonade until dark, with little effect, having in
all killed no more then two or three of the people.
When dark the people evacuated Windmill Hill, and
occupied an eminence called the Church Hill, situated
on a sideway near the opposite corner of the town,
near Lord Rawdon's demesne, and separated from Windmill
Hill by a small lake.  The military then advanced and took
possession of the position, whereupon the people from
Church Hill commenced (with some effect) a fire from six
swivels and some muskets, but were not answered by
the soldiers. The military finding at Windmill Hill Mr. Hugh
McCulloch of Bangor, who held among the people the rank
of Lieutenant Colonel, they hung him upon the mill
blades.  It was reported Mr. McCulloch was unable to
walk with sprained leg, others say no entreaties would
persuade him to remove from the place.
  During the night a party of militia went into and
plundered the town, and being assisted by the bomb shells
from Windmill Hill set it on fire, whereby that most
beautiful improved place, was reduced to nearly a heap
of rubbish.  Upon the approach of light, General Munro
led his main body from Lord Rawdon's demesne, to the
assistance of the party upon Church Hill, now greatly
exhausted by a severe conflicy, occasioned by a rally
of the town plunderers.  The General led on with the
most undaunted courage, and animating language.  The
party of military which remained at Windmill Hill
advancing with their cannon, a dreadful attack and
carnage ensued in the street, amidst scorching
flames and the crash of falling houses.  One of the people
endeavouring to seize a cannon, killed with his pike
a soldier putting the match, and another countryman
approaching with the hammer and spike, was blown away
by the discharge.
  Poor Munro, being partly weakened by desertion, and
borne down by superior arms and powder, was obliged to
fly, leaving dead fifty-eight persons, besides four or
five shot by the 22nd Light Dragoons in scouring the
country, among whom there was a young woman.  In the
number of those killed in the street, who greatly
distinguished themselves, was Abraham Skelly of Tonaghmore
near Saintfield, and Col. Alexander Byers of Greyabbey,
who advanced in the front with twelve others, to lead on
the attack.  General Munro fled accompanied by one person,
the faithful companion of his misfortunes (one of our
passengers) and both were apprehended at Magheraknock,
about two miles distant from Ballynahinch, by a party of
Orangemen, who delivered them over to the 22nd Light
Dragoons, by whom they were escorted to Lisburn, where two
days after General Munro was tried by Court Martial,
found guilty, and hanged half-an-hour after trial, before
his own door, his head severed from his body and placed
upon a pike on the market house.  Could General Munro and
his party hasve maintained
the contest half-an-hour longer the military must have
given way, as they had not more tham two rounds of
ammunition; or had the people gained the battle, and
thereby added to the spirit inspired by the Saintfield
victory, their army in two days would have been 40,000
strong; and they would have been joined even by many
wealthy leaders who encouraged them on, but skulked back
at the approach of danger, with all Ulster in arms!
The military must have lost in this battle near two
hundred men, among whom was Captain Evat, of the
Monaghan militia, and a famous Orange commander, though the
soldiers would not acknowledge any loss except the
captain and one private.  They concealed the number
of their dead by throwing them into burning houses,
casting them into the lake near the town, or carrying
them off.
  The militia proceeded back to Saintfield, with
about forty cars loaded with plunder, large sums of
money, and driving with them such cows and horses as came
within their reach.  Upon their route they shot one man at
his own door, who the day before had divided among
them his bread and a churn of cream, and he and his
daughters were but just employed in the act of
distributing them refreshments, until their stores were
exhausted - his crime, because he did not furnish more.
The offender was not punished.  Coming to Saintfield
they proceeded to burn Daid Shaw's cotton machinery
house, and committed some plunder.  Proceeding on the
road to Belfast, they burned the houses of Peter Meagan
and John Mossgrove of Lessans, of James Fisher of Oughley,
of George Spence of Killynure, all in the parish of
Saintfield, farmers, and in a word carrying rack and
ruin to Belfast.
  In this mournful contest, part of the town of Antrim,
the towns of Templepatrick, Randalstown, and the beautiful
town of Ballymoney have been nearly burned to the ground.
Besides the burning and racking of Roman Catholic chapels
and private houses and parts of towns throughout the places
in Ulster, with those in Leinster, Munster, and Connaught,
not to be numbered.  To the great honour of the people,
though so much provoked, very few instances of rapine
or barbarity can be imputed to them.  Many of the people
in arms who have fallen into the hands of the military,
or been apprehended on suspicion of abetting the
revolution, have been freed by Court Martial, a
considerable number executed, and a very much greater
number sentenced to transportation out of his Majesty's
  If a man upon his trial was proved to be a man of
property and good character he was told that was against
him, as it showed he must have influence, and therefore
was more criminal.  Among those executed at Belfast were
Mr. James Dickey, attorney, of Crumlin, John Story,
printer in Belfast, Henry Byers of Saintfield, their
heads were placed upon the market house; Mr. Hugh
Graham of Creevytennant, near Saintfield, and Mr. Henry
Joy McCracken, hanged only.  At Newtownards, Mr. John Carr,
hanged, his head placed upon the market house.  Messrs.
Robert Goudy of Dunover, and William McCormick, of
Newtownards, the Rev. James Porter, Presbyterian minister,
of Greyabbey, was sent under a strong military escort to
that place, some of his own hearers forced to erect a
gallows at the back of his own meeting house, upon which
he was executed on a charge of aiding and fomenting
rebellion (He ordered bread to some people almost famished.)
At Dublin, among others, the two councellors [councillors?]
Spears, of Cork, Sir Edward Crosby; at Wexford, Cornelius
Grogan and Beauchamp Bagnal Harvey, Esqrs., all men of rank
and fortune, some as high as œ6,000 sterling yearly, with
others too numerous to mention, in different parts of the
Kingdom, all of whom generally died with the most heroic
fortitude, glorying in their cause, and exhorting the
people.  Indeed, from those who have suffered in various
ways, being the most virtuous independent part of the
community, it is now become a proverb - the jail, the
bar, and even the gallows are posts of honour.
  A young lad in Dublin, of the name of Hart, about
fourteen years of age, a Roman Catholic, was convicted
of being a member of the Union.  When upon the scaffold
before the upper windows of the new prison, for the purpose
of being hanged, beheaded, and his heart cut out - all
the awful instruments of death being displayed - the
executioner approached him, brandishing a huge butcher's
knife more than half a yard long, and exclaimed, "You
can have your life by discovering upon your brethren!"
The lad replied undauntedly, "You may proceed, you are
not to obtain any discoveries from me!"
  A young lad of sixteen, very small in stature, was
executed at Ballynure, county of Antrim, charged with
forcing an able bodied man to go to the Antrim fight.
He died with the greatest heroism.
  A smith's boy in Downpatrick, about twelve years of
age, was made prisoner along with his master, upon
suspicion of pikes being made in their forge.  The military
took the boy to the parade with the declared design of
shooting him, unless he would inform upon his master.
The boy refusing, he was put to his station and ordered to
kneel.  The platoon of soldiers were ordered to make
ready and present.  The officer said, "Inform, or your soul
will immediately be blown to hell!"  The lad heroically
replied, "That is beyond your reach.  You may kill my body,
but God has put my soul out of your power!"  This so abashed
the military that they dismissed him.
  Captain Maxwell of Finnebrogue, near Downpatrick, a
gentleman of upwards œ3,000 sterling yearly estate, came
(with his company of Yeomen, and a troop of Ancient Britons
Light Horse) to the house of High Shaw, of White Hill, in
the same neighbourhood, a white-smith, and a man of great
respectability, having four motherless children, one not
a year old.  Hugh being suspected of making pikes, being
at a little distance from his house, when the party arrived,
and learning they were to destroy his place, in hopes of
preserving a shed for his helpless orphans, he hastened
forward and surrendered himself.  The gentry not contented
with his person, immediately set fire to his place, whereby
his workshop and most beautiful farmhouse, were reduced to
ashes, and his orphans left without a covering.  The next
seized Shaw's person, mounted him upon a horse, and tied him,
with his face toward the tail.  They then goaded the
horse to make it leap, took him off the horse, tied him
to the tail and dragged him till he fainted, then carried
him to Downpatrick and pilloried him twice, to force
a discovery of persons who employed him to make pikes - all
of which he bore with fortitude.
  Doctor Cord of Killinchy, when leading down the street of
Downpatrick to the place of execution, showed not the
smallest tokens of dismay, but exclaimed to the crowd
that his spirit would not repair to the mansion of happiness,
but would hover in the air, anxiously looking on till his
country's wrongs were redressed.
  Robert Goudy of Dunover, grandson of the late Rev.
and pious Mr. Goudy of Ballywalter, whose praise is
in the churches, when on the ladder of the gallows in
the street of Newtownards, observed the Earl of
Londonderry and others, composing his Court Martial,
that he would shortly argue the matter with them before a
tribunal where there would be an impartial hearing.
  The son of Joseph Clokey of Ballynahinch, a lad
scarcely sixteen, apprehended at Newry and about to be
executed as a fugitive with a wrong pass, was told that
he might be saved upon expressions of sorrow and evidence
of amendment.  He declared that even to save his life
he would stop his endeavours for the emancipation of
his country, upon which he was immediately hanged.
  Hugh Hamilton, son of Alexander, of Lisowen near
Saintfield, a lad of about fifteen years of age, and two
others were apprehended near Hillsborough, a few days after
the Ballynahinch fight, and hanged without ceremony
upon the church gate.
  General Munro, when about to be executed at Lisburn
before his own door, when mounting the ladder one of
the rungs broke, he with perfect cheerfulness, bounded
over the vacancy, observing with smiles of complaisance
(to the Yeomen and the 22nd Light Dragoons, his guards)
I am dying for my country.
  Dickey, attorney, near Crumlin, aged 22 years, about
an hour after his trial, was escorted by a large military
force, accompanied by General Nugent, and the officers of
the garrison, to the market-house of Belfast.  When upon
the scaffold and about to be cast off, the military
provost, or executioner, proceeded to pinion his arms
and cover his face with a nightcap.  Dickey bounded
indignantly and exclaimed, "Sir, don't cover my face!"
He tore the cap from his head and turning to the
officers with an expressive tone cried aloud, "Don't
think gentlemen, I am ashamed to show my face among you,
I am dying for my country!"
  Miss McCracken, sister to Henry Joy McCracken, a young
lady of about eighteen, of the most gentle manners,
accompanied her brother to the gallows-foot, without
shedding a tear.  If possible, there is an even more
remarkable of female fortitude in the person of the
wife of a young man of the name of Armstrong, who was
executed in Lisburn.  The wife, who was about nineteen
years of age, stood at the foot of the gallows during
the execution, with her infant about half-a-year old on
her left arm, without shedding a tear.  Upon her husband
being cut down she received him on her other arm,
exclaiming, "God be thanked!  He died like a man and has
not dishonoured his family."
  Among those who were to be transported were Mr. Oliver
Bond, merchant, (since dead) and seventy other respectable
persons in Dublin, Captain Moore, Newtown Limavaddy,
[Limavady?], the Rev. Messrs. Steel of Dungiven, Glendy
of Maghera, Simpson and Sinclair of Newtownards,
Presbyterian Ministers.
  Very few retaliations have been made on the part of
the people, one of whom was the son of General Lake,
commander in chief, who is said to have been hanged and
beheaded, at Wexford, in return for certain people who
were executed in Dublin.
  The offices of the Belfast 'Northern Star' and the
Dublin 'Press' being wrecked, the remaining papers being
either in the pay of the government, or not daring to
publish any intelligence, until licensed by the military
officer commanding the district, under penalty of
destruction, a true state of public affairs in Ireland is
very difficult to obtain.  Every military despatch as
detailed in the newspapers, sets forth the military as
ever victorious, and the insurrection as totally suppressed;
that the country has been nearly desolated; the people
most severely handled, and even put down in Ulster by the
military, as most certainly fact.  But it is equally true,
that, on the 16th of August when we left Belfast, the
people continued to make a stand in arms, particularly
in the County Carlow, and in a chain across the Kingdom
between Ulster and the other provinces, led by officers
who best knew how to make regular attacks; that arms to
the amount of seventy thousand stand had been landed from
abroad; that some of the militia, and other military, had
joined the people's standard, and many more waited the
opportunity to do the like; that a general distrust of the
military was manifested, by soliciting them to remove to
England, which they peremptorily refused; that a bill
passed the English Parliament to enable His Majesty to
accept the services of ten thousand of the English militia
to quell the rebellion in Ireland, but a number of the
regiments refused to march, and that a Scotch fencible
regiment, when at Portpatrick, did the same; that men
of the first respectability in London openly declared
that the part the people were acting in Ireland was a just
and necessary resistance; and by letter to Ireland, that
a like event is there hourly to be looked for.  In
Scotland, fifty persons of character, arrested at Glasgow,
were equally ready to co-operate; that a French invasion is
much dreaded in Britain, and looked for as almost a
certainty in Ireland, in which case a contest would not last
a week.
  But even supposing the British navy should be so powerful
and watchful as to defeat the every attempt of France and
her allies in making a descent upon any of the three
Kingdoms, yet still a revolution cannot be kept off.  The
interest of a national debt approaching five hundred millions
of pounds sterling; a most expensive civil and military
establishment which must be maintained, public credit
so low as to be obliged to borrow money at a rate of from
five to eleven per cent; the almost total disappearance of
hard money; being shut off from the trade of a considerable
part of the world, and the consequent failure of revenue,
so that the receipts of the custom houses, more especially in
Ireland, do scarcely pay their own officers added together,
must form such an enormous load that the unwieldy mass
must speedily crumble into atoms by its own weight!
  I hinted to you already that the Orange society was
formed as a counterpoise to the United Irishmen, but the
promoters of the Orange system had learned to their sad
experience that their scheme of rooting out Roman
Catholics will not serve their purpose, as they have
not only thereby brought upon themselves the vengeance
of three million Catholics, but the execration of every
virtuous Protestant in this enlightened age; they therefore
have entered upon their old game of divide and govern.
They now give out that there is nothing unfriendly to
Roman Catholics in the Orange system, but only to such as
shall oppose the maintenance of the present constitution
in Church and State, thereby hoping to detach from the
general cause such timerous or lukewarm Catholics as
would prefer the present state, to the greater privileges
to be obtained through the efforts of an uncertain
revolution.  The tenor of the Orange oath, it seems now is,
that they "will not be unfriendly to such Roman Catholics
as shall join in supporting the present Constitution of
Ireland in Church and State, but if once induced to draw the
sword against Catholics, they will persue them to death."
But the Orange system even thus more liberally enlarged,
can never make any great progress among Roman Cathloics,
or even Protestants, as it tends to perpetuate those
grievances which the most virtuous part of the community
are determined against at the expense of every sacrifice.
Besides, Roman Catholics clearly discern, whatever may be the
pretence of Orangemen at present, that there is something
in the Orange scheme that is fundamentally ruinous to
Catholics, as is evident, even since the commencement of the
present revolution, from their burning of chapels in cold
blood, particularly at Moira, Aghagallon, and Derriaghy,
and the unrelenting cruelty with which they persecute every
person who shows a desire for Roman Catholics to enjoy
the right of citizens, of which, among many others, there was
a striking instance in the person of the Rev. Thomas L.
Birch, one of our number.
  Mr. Birch, a marked object as early as the first year of
your American war, for bearing testimony against that unnatural
business, and joining with others and endeavouring to reform
those abuses which have of late so fatally issued in
Ireland, was made prisoner the third day after the
Ballynahinch battle, in his own house, at three o'clock in
the [sic?] by a troop of the 24th light dragoons, under
an order of General Goldie, and escorted to Lisburn; where
he was tried by a general Court-Martial, upon a charge of
treason and rebellion, at Saintfield and Ballynahinch; and
during the trial of three days, through out of the five
witnesses brought against him, four of them carried arms in
the revolution, and had a promise of mitigation of punishment,
upon his conviction, and the other a soldier pensioner;
there not appearing anything against him of reasonable
pretence, to pass on him the sentence of death, (NOTE A)
but on the contrary it was proved that Birch was not at
either of the battles of Saintfield or Ballynahinch; nor
did he appear in arms during the present contest, and
besides he buried the killed soldiery in his meeting house
yard, and persuaded the exasperated people not to put to
death the wounded soldiers found concealed in a farmer's
barn, whom the people were threatening to destroy along
with the farmer, in return for gross barbarities inflicted
by the Newtownards Yeomen upon some of their wounded.
  Birch at all events being to be sacrifices, was given to
know by the Court-Martial (through the medium of a friend)
which was composed of gentlemen of attention and great
humanity; that provided he (Birch) would agree to transport
himself out of his Majesty's dominions, to any state not
at war with his Majesty, never to return unless permitted
this sentence should be made absolute, and other proceedings
against him quashed.  Birch, having consented, and made
the choice of the United States of America for the residence
of his family; the Orangemen in number about three hundred,
who were doing duty in Lisburn as yeomen, learning that he was
not to die, a party of them in arms, the day following,
headed by Johnston and Hastings, tavern keepers, Lisburn,
and one Morrow tavern keeper, Maze Course, came to Birch
who was walking under the care of a sentinel in the horse
guard-house yard, where he was accosted by Johnston (it
being about eleven o'clock) and asked if he had heard he
was to be hanged at 12 o'clock that day; Birch answering
in the negative, Johnston rejoined with damning his soul,
that he would - for the yeomen then on parade had determined
to take him by force and execute him, and nothing should
prevent them!  Johnston further asked Birch, if as a
Presbyterian minister, he did not receive a bounty of
œ30 sterling annually, from Government?  Birch replied that
he received a yearly sum from the people through the hands
of the government, for which he was highly grateful to
the people, and to Mr. Johnston as contributor with others,
upon which Johnston damned him, what then had he to do
uniting with Papists!  Birch replying that he desired to
be in friendship with honest virtuous men of every
  Johnston desired him to make his Will, and immediately
set about other preparations he thought necessary, adding
the most horrid imprecations, that he should be hanged in
an hour; and presented his loaded pistol to Birch, swearing
that he believed it was best to despatch him on the spot.
The soldiers in the guardhouse (most ferocious when Birch
came amongst them, but now warmly attached, from a knowledge
of the state of affairs, accompanied with kind office)
hearing some violence, sent out an additional sentinel and
brought in Birch, upon which Adjutant Watson, the officer
of the guard, addressed the soldiers, telling them it
would be an eternal disgrace for them to permit a prisoner
under the operation of the law to be released out of the
guard house and put to death; and therefore, if they
would stand by him, he would die at their head.  The
soldiers declaring their most hearty concurrence, were
ordered to stand to their arms.  The yeomen, faithful to
their promise, (having previously brought two ropes)
repaired towards the guardhouse door, upon which the
22nd light dragoons sallied forth and formed in the street,
which caused the Orange gentry to decamp, without
effecting their purpose.
  They denounced like threats, the same evening, but were
so terrified by the steadiness of the military, as not
to dare attempt the execution, and two days after Birch
being about to be sent to Belfast, with only three dragoons,
the carriage procured by the general's A.D.C. from one of
the yeomen, broke down at the outset (supposed through
design) and while another was procuring, some of the
yeomen surrounding Birch in the broken carriage with
pistols in their hands, expressed the great propriety of
assassinating him on the spot, and he afterwards departed
under their scoffs and taunts. NOTE B.
  Indeed, my friend, however it may surprise you, the
worthy generous Roman Catholic of Ireland, long ignorant
and treated as a stranger in his own country, is now
become as enlightened as others; he can clearly perceive
that Roman Catholics being the most numberous body, they
must of necessity ever be the political enemies of those
in power who are interested in preserving an exclusive
establishment of religion in a particular party; and,
therefore that they never can enjoy the rights of citizens,
while such an establishment has the rule, and no one thing
has served more to open the eyes of the Catholics of Ireland,
and to show tham that there is too much worldly policy,
carried on by Princes and other temporal powers; and even
by the Pope himself, under the pretence of religion; then your
late war, and the one carrying on at present by the combined
powers against France; they can clearly perceive a King, the
head of an Episcopal Church, in England, and Ireland,
maintaining Presbyteriamism in Scotland, and popery in
Canada; they could observe combined powers sacrificing
thousands of lives, and millions of treasure to establish
popery in one country, while the Pope was guarded by the 12th
regiment of the British light-horse, and Roman Catholics
not only refused the rights of citizens, but even persecuted
in Ireland: The Pope though so great a favourite with those who
could releive them, yet not deigning to speak a word on
their behalf.
  No doubt you have frequently heard of our people, who
have been endeavouring to obtain a reform in Great Britain
and Ireland, (as you once did) represented as anarchists
and enemies to all government, who only wish to live by
plunder; and therefore you would desire to know what
such people wanted.
  The persons who have been seeking a reform (among them
was the late Earl of Chatham, the present Mr. Pitt's father)
are not more enemies to regular government than your late
worthy Franklin, at the bar of the British House of
Commons; but the most sober, virtuous, and independent part
of the community, and most adverse to plunder; the greatest
enemies to government are those who from interested views
will not tell rulers of their errors, and honestly and
peaceably endeavour to have them rectified before they arrive
to such a magnitude, as to provoke resistance, and a total
overturn.  Your loyalists (falsely so called) assisted by
Rivington's New-York Gazette, trumpeting up the happy
contented state of your people, under British subjugation,
the victories of the fleets and armies, and the downfall
of every thing that opposed, blinded the eyes of our three
Kingdoms and lost your United States to Great Britain; and the
bribes, pensions, and places lavished upon these deceivers,
has added much to the mill-stone of the National Debt
which is hung about her neck, and drowning her in the sea
of bankruptcy.  But I am sure the enlightened people of
America are now too well informed to be deceived by such
  The people of Great Britain and Ireland were prejudiced
even to childish folly in behalf of their form of Government
as consisting of Kings, Lords, and Commons; and happy would
they have been under such provided they had been indulged
(like you) as citizens, in enjoying rights without religious
distinctions, and the fair vote of choosing their
in the Commons House of Parliament.  But it is to be feared
that the increasing desire for republicanism throughout the
world to which your people led the way; the deaf ear that had
been lent you; the contempt that had been shown to the most
humble petitions of the people by Parliament, and even by
Majesty; and above all the rapines, burnings, rapes, murders,
and other sheddings of blood, as once in these free and happy
States, have made such a deep impression upon the people's
minds, that nothing will satisfy (no matter at what price)
but a republican form of government.  What most seriously
affects the friends of reform in Ireland and great Britain,
is - least the citizens of your United States, in whose veins
flows the best Irish and British blood, the first asserters
of freedom, under the matured Councils of an ever to be revered
Washington, now carried into execution by an Adams, a name
long dear to the friends of liberty, should ever be so far
deceived, by designing men, as to be considered as the
opposers of Irish and English emancipation, and as such to be
treated as enemies, which - may God of his infinite mercy
  I was a good deal surprised, upon my arrival here in America,
and indeed it is sufficient to raise laughter, to hear of the
torrent of infidelity, deism, or rather atheism, vomited forth
against Tom Paine, as the mouth of the French Directory and
people, which is now deluging Great Britain and Ireland, and
like to float America; and to be told of the mighty champions
amongst the clergy, even Bishops, who have been attempting to
stem this all-drowning ocean, and that some of your well-meaning
preachers have begun in terror to bank off the flood.
  What if Tom Paine was the author of the Age of Reason, you
know Tom Paine is not a Frenchman.  But whosoever was the
author of this work, he has missed his aim, where he alone
could do any hurt.  He has furnished a few smart ill-founded
repartees against Christianity which may assist profane
pedantic shop boys, or debauches, who are void of or wish
to ridicule and reject all religion, in raising an impious
laugh.  But the Refugee Priests of France, who cannot be
supposed partial, tells us in our three Kingdoms, as I tell
you, that the sober, respectable, middling class of people
in France, whether protestants or others, attend upon, and
profess religion as formerly, though less bigoted.  The
French did not lay violent hands upon more than three
hundred and fifty Priests out of the two hundred thousand
Clergy; and those Priests acting as spies to the enemy,
even revealing the secrets of their own flock (which are
inviolable) and procuring their destruction, frequently
going through the streets bare headed and footed, for the
purpose of counteracting the revolution (by acting on weak
minds) cursing with bell, book, and candle-light, all
such persons as bore arms in forwarding its purposes; and
all such as would not take arms and carry fire, sword, and
massacre amongst its abettors.  And the same is the case
in Great Britain and Ireland, but such profane babbling is
totally despised!  The great folks of France, like others
in high rank throughout Europe, have long been known at least
to be deists, and it is equally notorious that Tom Paine,
the French Directory, or any other people, have not any
occasion to come to Ireland or Britain to propagate such
principles, the most of the great having long held the
Christian profession (except in name) in ridicule - Scarcely
ever to be seen in church, state days excepted, can damn!
can it be thought they could believe such stuff! that God
as much spoke to Moses as to them! that the devil or eternal
punishment are mere bugbears! rawhead and bloody bones!
necessary to awe the vulgar, but not useful to such
enlightened men as them!  They care nothing about religion
but to get livings for their younger children in the
Church, the dignity of the family requiring the eldest
son to get the estate; or to improve their towns by
gathering crowds into them.  Nay, it is not uncommon for a
man a professional infidel, perhaps a debauchee, upon
becoming a clergyman, and getting a church living as it
is termed, but especially upon being made a bishop, to
become a mighty advocate for Christianity - extremely
orthodox! - for you know ten or fourteen thousand pounds
sterling a year contains a great many sensible arguments.
But indeed my friend, a number of men in power (thank
God not like your enlightened state) who can drive out
their fellow brethren from the rights of citizens because they
are not of the established Church, but worship God
according to the dictates of their conscience, or men
stating themselves teachers of the meek and merciful
Jesus, who frequently live a hundred miles distant from
their pretended flocks, whose services cannot in conscience
be received, who are often totally unknown to the people
except by title, yet can under the pretence of law, exact
forty shilling sterling, per acre for, or dig every tenth
perch of the poor peasants potatoes, the bare ground and
manure of which cost seven guineas per acre, to be paid to
his landlord by his daily labour, at six pence per day,
without diet, and upon the produce thereof he and his
small family have to be alone sustained, favoured with a
little butter-milk in summer, and salt in winter; and
sometimes selling the widow's shift, to pay a Church
tax, to purchase the bread and wine, with which they
commemorate their blessed Lord:  These and suchlike,
have made such infidels of the people relative to the
discourses of such men, that no matter whether Tom Paine,
Tom Bull, Tom Saway, Tom Paddy, or Tom Yanky, I was going to
say worse, they will not hear; neither can they be brought
to believe that such a corrupt tree can bear good fruit.
  From the butcheries reported to be committed in Ireland,
by the Roman Catholics, upon the Protestants, you have
concluded that the Presbyterians and Catholics are not an
united body, as represented, and your honest zeal and
indignation are roused against the unworthy, persecuting
Roman Catholics of Ireland.  Alas! how soon does Pharo's
chief Butler, now at the prison forget Joseph!  It might
have been supposed that you Americans, not one hundred
years out of the same predicament with Ireland, would have
known those whom (using the term once made use of to you)
the wise, omnipotent Parliaments of Great Britain and
Ireland, mean by Protestants.  However, for the information
of the ignorant, and the refreshing the memories of the
forgetful, we must observe, that it is much easier to
answer in the negative, as to the religious professions,
and religion they exclude, then the religion to be pointed
out, if there is any religion in the matter, which is
disputed.  By the name of Protestants is not meant the people
of the Presbyterian Christian profession, nor even the
descendants of the Old Puritans, settled in your New
England provinces, whose forefathers were persecuted out of
Great Britain, under the law "De Hereticus Comburendo", or
burning of Heretics, in reigns of Mary and Charles, and
who Churches in Boston, etc. were ( not fifty years ago,
as unhallowed cages because not consecrated) turned ( by
certain Generals) into play-houses, barracks, and riding
houses - Neither does the term Protestant intend Seceders,
called here Scotch Reformed Presbyterians, Baptists,
Methodists, Universalists, etc. or even the meek, mild
brotherhood called Quakers, who are enemies to all wars,
slavery of men, and who permit the loss of property, or
even life without resistance, when in conscience they
cannot comply.  No, no, my dear friend, none of these sects
are allowed the dignified title of Protestants, by the
wise masters, unless "Rule Britannia" or "Hearts of Oak"
have a powerful Roman Catholic rival to combat, some
party business in Church or State is to be served, then the
shibboleth, the rallying term, the hue and cry, is
Protestants! at other times they are ignorant, wild, blind
Enthusiasts, void of all religion; in a word those designated
by the name of Protestants, are members of the Episcopal
Church, the legal establishment of Ireland.
  Neither is the sacred character of the Ministry of the
fore-mentioned professions more honourably treated by this
self all comprehending profession; they declare that all
Clergy not Episcopally ordained like theirs, are absolute
laymen, who in taking upon themselves to preach the word,
or administer the sacraments, are profane intruders into
Christ's Vineyard, thieves and robbers, climbing over the
wall, and not coming in by the door, and as such exclude
them from officiating in their churches; nor do they even
except the Scotch Reformed Presbyterians (so called) or
Seceding Ministers, Burgess, and Anti-Burgess, though the
majority of them of late, have become so loyal, or rather
royal in Ireland and elsewhere, indeed by more rapid
strides than their people are prepared to follow them; and
have forgotten that part of their sworn Covenant termed
extirpation (meaning reformation) of exclusive prelatic
establishments Lording over Christ's heritage.
  To let you know how numerous and respectable the mighty
Protestant body is, which is supported by one hundred
thousand military, backed by the army and navy of Great
Britain, while rule the three million of Roman Catholics,
and the twelve hundred thousand occasional, nominal
Protestants, enjoying a Church establishment supported, by
one twelfth of the lands and a tenth of the produce of
Ireland, besides other taxes.
  The parish of Killinchy, seated in the County of Down,
the first Protestant county in Ulster, the only province
in Ireland to be called Protestant, contains 4,600
Presbyterians;  the Church congregation consisted of a
Minister educated for the Presbyterians, but who conformed
for the great salary; he married a Presbyterian, had a
Roman Catholic clerk, a woman sexton, and his tithe proctor's
wife, these were his sole congregation; and was it not for
the Test Act, which required the nominal appearance of
these at the Episcopal Church, who were to fulfil the
offices of State, enjoy lands, etc. when their hearts were
elsewhere, and the Church doo