Law and practice in respect to the occupation of land in Ireland: minutes of evidence: part II

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0f Bandon pre considerably larger than tho farms on the sea coast. 
The small farms 

~Z~L cropped more, and the large farms arc more grazing. 


' e M Atock" esq 

rK "Does fcl"d (U*ir'ct ^"-tu wu'rl1 Jou are acquainted afford opportunities for extensive and ' q" remunerative improvements?—No 
doubt of it, it there was capital. 
Can you specify any modes in which you think improvements could be effected ? 
Th river Banclon may be improved, so that there might be a navigation to a certain extent o it. 
There might be a navigation on the whole extent of the river up to the town. 
That has been canvassed. 
I do not know whether it will bo carried on now ; but if there were quays erected on different parts of tbe river, adapted for vessels to load and. 
unload at, it would be a great advantage to the town. 
Is there any other improvement you wish to name ?—The 
inhabitants of Bandon would also be anxious to have a tram-road. 
That was canvassed at a public meeting ; but has not been carried into execution. 
Where was it proposed to go to ?—Between 
this town and Kinsale. 
Is the state of agriculture improving ?—It 
is considerably, I have no doubt of it • but the want of capital among the general class of farmers prevents a more effective improve¬ ment. 
Some gentlemen who have capital are extensive and improving farmers; but thev do not practice a regular rotation of crops upon the new system. 
Drainage is generally attempted, but not carried on with system. 
It is considered principally of value in removino* the under-water, without reference to the removal of the surface-water. 
There is one farming* society, which has given a great stimulus to improvement in stock and agriculture both in growing green crops, and in breeding* stock. 

Is there any agriculturist in the neighbourhood employed by the farming society, or any proprietor in it ?—No, 
What is the more general size of tho tillage farms ancl the mode of culture ?— 
They vary very much. 
They vary from under ton to 500 acres and upwards. 
Are there many under ten ?—Yes, 
on the sea coast; inland they are larger. 
Those who hold under ten aro half labourers. 
They must have labour to pay their rent. 

Taking the whole district, should you say that the farms are generally under ten? 

It is impossible to speak to the whole district, as there are 150,000 acres. 
That is the extent of tho union about which I have been recommended to be examined. 
We make use of all kinds of manure, sea sand, bone dust, and farm-yard dung, and town dung. 
Improved tillage has nob lessened the demand for labour, and has given more employment to women and children. 
Are the grazing farms increasing ?—Indeed 
I cannot say that they are. 
If any thing, they are increasing; but we havo not what I call grazing farms, entirely given up to grazing, but grazing \\n\\ cropping the land at tho same time. 
For instance, now, as a farmer myself. 
I havo a dairy, and I raise crops of every description, and cattle. 

Is there much land in the district in dairy farms ?—Yes, 
there are a great many dairy farms in the district, particularly to tho north. 
Are there many firms held in common or in joint tenancy ?—I 
do not think there are. 
It is not a common mode of holding. 
Do they use whins extensively in feeding horses or cattle ?—Yes, 
they do, particularly horses. 
I feed my horses on them in the winter in lieu of bay. 
What sort of ground do they require ; do they require a good soil ?—They 
will grow on any soil—on a wot marl, or a rich clay. 
Tho richer the soil the worse the furze. 
They will not grow on a deep rich loam. 
Do you find thorn a profitable crop?—They 
are necessary for the purpose when we are scarce of hay. 
Do you mow them every year?—No 
; in this country we do not mow them at all. 
They got a small stick with a fork and a hook to it. 
They cut tho succulent branches off, ancl draw them homo, and pound thorn. 
They generally cut them with a chopper or a machine. 
I have seen but one furze-cutter. 
In what manner is the rent fixed in thc district ?—The 
amount is generally fixed by proposal—on some estates by valuation ; it is an acreablo sum. 
What class of persons arc employed to value ?—A 
man in my situation values his property himself, and in other cases the agent. 
What proportion does the usual letting value bear to the poor law valuation ?—There 
have been three valuations : there have been the baronial valuation for the county cess, the tithe valuation, and the poor rate. 
I have made a comparison of them in a ploughland of my own. 
The baronial valuation is £328 12.?. 
on the ploughland, the tithe valuation is £336 14.s*. 
and the poor law valuation £326 11.?. 
; the number of acres is 491. 
Could you add the rent to that statement ?—I 
have another ploughland over 136 acres, and the valuation is £326 lis. 
for the poor rate. 
My value of the other plough-land is £460 9s. 
for 491 acres, within a mile of the town of Bandon. 
Do you consider that that would give a fair representation of the proportion gene¬ rally borne by the poor law to the letting value ?—Excepting 
on one estate, the letting is aoout one-sixth over the poor law valuation. 
In this case, on my own property it is considerably more ; it is generally from ono-sixth to one-eighth—from 3s. 
to 2s. 
in the pound. 
How soon after tho rent becomes due is it usually demanded?—That 
is according to n man's necessities, but I tliink in about three or four months. 
is there any system of payment of rent by bills by the small tenantry ?—No, 
28, Does the tenant depend for his rent on the loan fund or local usurers ?-—The