Law and practice in respect to the occupation of land in Ireland: minutes of evidence: part II

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]3> piave you had an opportunity of comparing the different unions? 
Bandon and 

^T Bantry I have; and on comparing it with those, I thought it a very reasonable one and Mr.T. 
generally below* thc value. 
1 think that a medium value between the poor law valuation and n 


the rent"actually paid, would be the fair value of tbe land. 
You think the one too high and thc other too low?—Yes. 
With respect to agencies—in all cases where thc office of agent is abused, it must be owing in a o-reat decree to the landlord's own neglect, particularly if ho is a resident landlord, and if a non-resident in not listening to tho complaints of the tenants. 
I have known that case exist in many instances. 
I am acquainted with striking abuses by some agents in this district. 
Tenants of the worst and poorest description aro obliged to go to the bank to raise money; the ao-ent draws upon them, and in the case I allude to, they have to pay for the stamp and discount at the bank The agent has made them pay 6d. 
for filling tho bill, and a discount equal in amount to himself to that which they paid at the bank—that is a fee for himself for putting his name to the bill. 

Is that a general system ?—No 
; I am happy to say that that is the only case I heard of. 
I thought it so striking, I was determined to mention it if an opportunity occurred. 
Are we to understand you never heard of another instance of it ?—No 
; it is confined to one agent, but not to one instance. 
We want an improved system of agriculture very much, for the occupying tenant holds sometimes more than he can work, in consequence of the bad system. 
I am quite sure we have land enough in this district, comparatively speak¬ ing, uncultivated, to support double the number of people who hold it. 

What is the condition of the labouring classes ?—They 
are in the very lowest state; there is not constant employment for them, and I do not think wo have within ourselves any remedy. 
If many of tbe larger proprietors could be induced to adopt the allotment system in its improved features, it would be productive of much good, and many of them have it in their power to do so. 

What do you mean us to understand by "allotment system in its improved features ?" 
Similar to the very small farms held in England. 
It is a good while ago since Mr. 
Jacob published his pamphlet, as to what was done by the King of the Netherlands. 
Lord Braybrook adopted tho system, and gave from six to ten acres to his tenants; and upon getting those lots, and a comfortable cottage, they got on wonderfully: ancl if the same system was adopted here, it would be productive of great good. 
We have many poor in this district, who would be quite comfortable on ten acres. 
Farmers in this district hold a good deal more land than they can ever till. 

Would you be able to persuade them to give it up ?—I 
think landlords in many instances could divide it. 
Many of them hold twenty, or thirty, or forty acres. 
They could appropriate a portion of it to a man who is a more labourer, and half the year not getting employment. 
When employment can be got, it is quite common to have a labourer to work for 6(1. 
a day, and that when the potatoes are at the highest price, when they pay 6d. 
for twenty-one pounds. 

[ The icitness withdrew.] 
72uLa Thomas Townsend, esq., 
sworn and examined. 

Where do you live?—Smithville, 
in the cast division of West Carbery. 
What is your occupation or employment?—I 
am a half-pay lieutenant in the navy; I have been agent to an aunt of mine for these nine or ton years back ; and I have been in the habit of managing lauded property. 
What is the nature of thc district with which you are best acquainted ?—Almost 
the whole country is in tillage. 
Thc population is very great, and the mode of culture bad. 
Drainage is latterly getting more into practice among the farmers, but in general it is badly done for want of practice or knowledge. 
Rotation of crops there is none, with the exception of potatoes and corn alternately every year from time immemorial; the population being so great, and farms in general so small, they cannot well avoid it. 
The ground is naturally impoverished, and tho general complaint is", it will not bear as it formerly did. 

What is the description of the manures used ?—Persons 
living near the sea use sea¬ weed and sand, which in general bears good crops; those persons in the interior collect peat or turf mould in their yards for the cattle to trample on; those who can do so draw sand from a great distance, and mix it with the peat. 
A great number of them are not able to procure sand, but collect all they can of different materials in the mountains and turfy soil, which they burn, and the ashes give a good potato crop. 
The rent is generally a gross sum, at so much a gnoove or half gneeve, and seldom by the acre. 
The poor law is so differently-valued on the different properties that it would be hard to tell the proportion that the rent bears to it. 
The poor law valuation was the most incorrect thing in the world. 
There is one tenant who pays a rent of £73 a year, in comfortable circumstances, and well paid, and a very decent respectable man, and they valued Mm at £50 a year; another man, who paid £36 a year, they valued him at £48—both of them yearly tenants, and it was out of the nature of thino-s that the landlord should not know the value of tbe ground : if the tdo 


was worth £48, ho would not bo allowed to hold it at £36; but I could not get them to alter tho valuation. 
With respect to tho time of the payment of rent, many^demand pay¬ ment immediately on its coming due, and a great many others do not require it for a . 
ensjt of time after it becomes due. 
'The mode of recovery is by distress on the lands. 
Wnetner under the proprietor or middlemen, I see little or no difference in the letting of lanos. 
The proprietor, with few exceptions, requires as much from the cottager tenant and smau